Conquering the Aztec Empire Biography: Where did Hernan Cortes grow up?
The surrender of Granada in In the 16th century perhapsEuropeans entered American ports. The conquistadors were professional warriors, using European tactics, firearms, and cavalry. Their armies were mostly composed of Iberian and other European soldiers.
Native allied troops were largely infantry equipped with armament and armour that varied geographically. Some groups consisted of young men without military experience, Catholic clergy which helped with administrative duties, and soldiers with military training.
These native forces often included African slaves and Native Americans. They not only fought in the battlefield but served as interpreters, informants, servants, teachers, physicians, and scribes. Castilian law prohibited foreigners and non-Catholics from settling in the New World.
However, not all conquistadors were Castilian. The origin of many people in mixed expeditions was not always distinguished. Various occupations, such as sailors, fishermen, soldiers and nobles employed different languages even from unrelated language groupsso that crew and settlers of Iberian empires recorded as Galicians from Spain were actually using Portuguese, Basque, Catalan, Italian and Languedoc languages, which were wrongly identified.
Castilian law banned Spanish women from travelling to America unless they were married and accompanied by a husband. Some conquistadors married Native American women or had illegitimate children.
Conquistadors praying before a battle at Tenochtitlan European young men enlisted in the army because it was one way out of poverty.
Catholic priests instructed the soldiers in mathematics, writing, theology, Latin, Greek, and history, and wrote letters and official documents for them. An uneducated young recruit could become a military leader, elected by their fellow professional soldiers, perhaps based on merit. Others were born into hidalgo families, and as such they were members of the Spanish nobility with some studies but without economic resources.
They were second cousins born in Extremadurawhere many of the Spanish conquerors were born. The two orders had very different approaches to the conversion of the Indians.
The Franciscans used a method of mass conversion, sometimes baptizing many thousands of Indians in a day. This method was championed by prominent Franciscans such as Toribio de Benavente. The conquistadors took many different roles, including religious leader, harem keeper, King or Emperor, deserter and Native American warrior.
Francisco Pizarro had children with more than 40 women. The division of the booty produced bloody conflicts, such as the one between Pizarro and De Almagro.
De Alvarado left South America in exchange for monetary compensation from Pizarro. The Emperor commissioned bishop Pedro de la Gasca to restore the peace, naming him president of the Audiencia and providing him with unlimited authority to punish and pardon the rebels.
Illustration of a typical Spanish Conquistador, was a conquistador in Venezuela and Colombia. The Venetian Sebastiano Caboto was Sebastián Caboto, Georg von Speyer Hispanicised as Jorge de la In the Iberian peninsula, in a situation of constant conflict, warfare and daily life were strongly interlinked. Small, lightly equipped armies. Apr 13, · Hernán Cortés (), also known as Hernando Cortés was a Spanish Conquistador, born in Medellin, which is in the province of Castile of Spain. He was responsible for the bold conquest of the Aztec Empire in in Central Mexico. Melvyn Bragg and guests discuss the Austrian princess Maria Antonia, child bride of the future French King Louis XVI. Their marriage was an attempt to bring about a major change in the balance of power in Europe and to undermine the influence of Prussia and Great Britain, but she had no say in the matter and was the pawn of her mother, the Empress Maria Theresa.
Gasca repealed the New Lawsthe issue around which the rebellion had been organized. Gasca convinced Pedro de Valdiviaexplorer of Chile, Alonso de Alvarado another searcher for El Dorado, and others that if he were unsuccessful, a royal fleet of 40 ships and 15, men was preparing to sail from Seville in June.
InPortugal conquered Ceutaits first overseas colony. Throughout the 15th century, Portuguese explorers sailed the coast of Africa, establishing trading posts for tradable commodities such as firearms, spices, silver, gold, and slavesin a worldwide route to Japan, crossing Africa, India, China and Korea.
In the first consignment of slaves was brought to Lisbon ; slave trading was the most profitable branch of Portuguese commerce until the Indian subcontinent was reached.
He later tried to incorporate by marriage the kingdom of Portugal. Treaties[ edit ] The discovery of the West Indies by Christopher Columbus rendered desirable a delimitation of the Spanish and Portuguese spheres of exploration. Thus dividing the world into two exploration and colonizing areas seemed appropriate.
This was accomplished by the Treaty of Tordesillas 7 June which modified the delimitation authorized by Pope Alexander VI in two bulls issued on 4 May Spain received the lands west of this line. The known means of measuring longitude were so inexact that the line of demarcation could not in practice be determined,  subjecting the treaty to diverse interpretations.
It was particularly valuable to the Portuguese as a recognition of their new-found,[ clarification needed ] particularly when, in —, Vasco da Gama completed the voyage to India. Later, when Spain established a route to the Indies from the west, Portugal arranged a second treaty, the Treaty of Zaragoza.
History of Portugal —Portuguese IndiaPortuguese discoveriesAge of explorationSpanish colonization of the AmericasBandeirantesand theory of Portuguese discovery of Australia Bronze figure of a Portuguese soldier made by Benin culture in West Africa around Two brass plates depicting a bearded Portuguese soldier before on top and Benin warriors at the bottom A page folio 67depicting indigenous Mexican warriors in the Codex Mendoza map of the Portuguese fort and the city of Malacca As a seafaring people in the south-westernmost region of Europe, the Portuguese became natural leaders of exploration during the Middle Ages.
Faced with the options of either accessing other European markets by sea, by exploiting its seafaring prowess, or by land, and facing the task of crossing Castile and Aragon territory, it is not surprising that goods were sent via the sea to England, FlandersItaly and the Hanseatic league towns.
Those routes were dominated first by the republics of Venice and Genoaand then by the Ottoman Empire after the conquest of Constantinople in He barred European access.
For decades the Spanish Netherlands ports produced more revenue than the colonies since all goods brought from Spain, Mediterranean possessions, and the colonies were sold directly there to neighbouring European countries:Hernan Cortes's Early Life in Europe.
Hernan Cortes was born in Spain in He was a smart kid, but also could be tough and get into trouble. Hernán Cortés, marqués del Valle de Oaxaca, was a Spanish conquistador who overthrew the Aztec empire and won Mexico for the crown of Spain.
Born around , Hernán Cortés was a Spanish. By B.C., villages based on agriculture and hunting had sprung up throughout the southern half of monstermanfilm.com Albán, home to the Zapotec people, had an estimated 10, inhabitants. Hernán Cortés: Hernan Cortes, Spanish conquistador who overthrew the Aztec empire (–21) and won Mexico for the crown of Spain.
The key to Cortes’s conquests lay in the political crisis within the Aztec empire; the Aztecs were bitterly resented by many of the subject peoples who had to pay tribute to them. Hernan Cortes de Monroy y Pizarro was born in in Medellin, western Spain, to infantry captain Martin Cortes de Monroy and Catalina Pizarro Altamirano.
At the age of 14, he was sent to the University of Salamanca to study Latin and make a career in monstermanfilm.com: Male. Melvyn Bragg and guests discuss the Austrian princess Maria Antonia, child bride of the future French King Louis XVI. Their marriage was an attempt to bring about a major change in the balance of power in Europe and to undermine the influence of Prussia and Great Britain, but she had no say in the matter and was the pawn of her mother, the Empress Maria Theresa.