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Analgesia, anticonvulsant action, appetite stimulation, ataraxia, antibiotic properties and low toxicity were described throughout medical literature, beginning inwhen O'Shaughnessy introduced cannabis into the Western pharmacopoeia. As these findings were reported throughout Western medicine, cannabis attained wide use.
Cannabis therapy was described in most pharmacopoeial texts as a treatment for a variety of disease conditions. During the second half of the s and in the present century, medical researchers in some measure corroborated the early reports of the therapeutic potential of cannabis. In addition, much laboratory research has been concerned with bioassay, determination of the mode of action, and attempts to solve the problems of insolubility in water and variability of strength among different cannabis specimens.
In light of such assets as minimal toxicity, no buildup of tolerance, no physical dependence, and minimal autonomic disturbance, immediate major clinical reinvestigation of cannabis preparations is indicated in the management of pain, chronic neurologic diseases, convulsive disorders, migraine headache, anorexia, mental illness, and bacterial infections.
Recently declassified secret U. Defense Department studies reconfirm marijuana's congeners to have therapeutic utility. Cannabis indica, Cannabis sativa, Cannabis americana, Indian hemp and marijuana or marihuana all refer to the same plant.
Cannabis is used throughout the world for diverse purposes and has a long history characterized by usefulness, euphoria or evil - depending on one's point of view.
To the agriculturist cannabis is a fiber crop; to the physician of a century ago it was a valuable medicine; to the physician of today it is an enigma; to the user, a euphoriant; to the police, a menace; to the traffickers, a source of profitable danger; to the convict or parolee and his family, a source of sorrow.
This book is concerned primarily with the medicinal aspects of cannabis.
The Chinese emperor Shen-nung is reported to have taught his people to grow hemp for fiber in the twenty-eighth century B. A text from the period B. In Persia, cannabis was known several centuries before Christ. In Assyria, about B. Dioscorides in the first century A.
Of interest is the paucity of references to hemp's intoxicating properties in the lay and medical literature of Europe before the s. O'Shaughnessy, a thirty-year-old physician serving with the British in India. O'Shaughnessy is not primarily known for his discovery of hemp drugs, but rather for his basic studies on intravenous electrolyte therapy inand his introduction of the telegraph into India in the s.
Satisfied that the drug was reasonably safe, he administered preparations of cannabis extract to patients, and discovered that it had analgesic and sedative properties. O'Shaughnessy successfully relieved the pain of rheumatism and stilled the convulsions of an infant with this strange new drug.
His most spectacular success came, however, when he quelled the wrenching muscle spasms of tetanus and rabies with the fragrant resin. Psychic effects resembling a curious delirium, when an overdose was given, were treated with strong purgatives, emetics with a blister to the nape of the neck, and leeches on the temples.
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In that report physicians told of success in treating stomach pain, childbirth psychosis, chronic cough, and gonorrhea with hemp products. Fronmueller, of Fuerth, Ohio, summarized his experiences with the drug as follows: I have used hemp many hundred times to relieve local pains of an inflammatory as well as neuralgic nature, and judging from these experiments, I have to assign to the Indian hemp a place among the so-called hypnotic medicines next to opium; its effects are less intense, and the secretions are not so much suppressed by it.
Digestion is not disturbed; the appetite rather increased; sickness of the stomach seldom induced; congestion never. Hemp may consequently be employed in inflammatory conditions. It disturbs the expectoration far less than opium; the nervous system is also not so much affected. The whole effect of hemp being less violent, and producing a more natural sleep, without interfering with the actions of the internal organs, it is certainly often preferable to opium, although it is not equal to that drug in strength and reliability.
An alternating course of opium and Indian hemp seems particularly adapted to those cases where opium alone fails in producing the desired effect. Birch, inreported success in treating opiate and chloral addiction with cannabis, 5 and Mattison in recommended its use to the young physician, comparing it favorably with the opiates.
He quoted his colleague Suckling: With a wish for speedy effect, it is so easy to use that modern mischief-maker, hypodermic morphia, that they [young physicians] are prone to forget remote results of incautious opiate giving.
Would that the wisdom which has come to their professional fathers through, it may be, a hapless experience, might serve them to steer clear of narcotic shoals on which many a patient has gone awreck.
Indian hemp is not here lauded as a specific. It will, at times, fail. So do other drugs. But the many cases in which it acts well, entitle it to a large and lasting confidence.He has published numerous articles and three books on the subject.
His most recent book is the essay collection “What Hashish Did To Walter Benjamin” (Khargala Press ). researcher, and photographer. His cannabis essays and his art photography can be found at his blog it was only natural that the personal growth sparked by. We provide high quality essay writing services on a 24/7 basis.
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Resumo: Erving Goffman's essay, "On the Characteristics of Total "marijuana addiction" or, as I chose to do, in a minor known to most adults, if not through their personal experience then through the experience of others they know.
Marijuana and Cannabis information from monstermanfilm.com, Including marijuana uses, side effects, and legal status. Marijuana and Cannabis information from monstermanfilm.com, Including marijuana uses, side effects, and legal status.
or "high" that users experience. Feeling of a relaxed state, euphoria, and an enhanced sensory perception may occur. monstermanfilm.comteristics and Medical Uses monstermanfilm.comics Abuse monstermanfilm.com of Abuse monstermanfilm.com of personal care and hygiene Psychological and physical dependence upon the drug We will write a custom essay sample on Narcotics – Research Paper specifically for you.
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