Sullen Fires Across the Atlantic: Essays in Transatlantic Romanticism Introduction:
History of feminism The ancient world There is scant evidence of early organized protest against such circumscribed status. For most of recorded history, only isolated voices spoke out against the inferior status of women, presaging the arguments to come.
In late 14th- and early 15th-century France, the first feminist philosopher, Christine de Pisanchallenged prevailing attitudes toward women with a bold call for female education. The defense of women had become a literary subgenre by the end of the 16th century, when Il merito delle donne ; The Worth of Womena feminist broadside by another Venetian author, Moderata Fonte, was published posthumously.
Defenders of the status quo painted women as superficial and inherently immoral, while the emerging feminists produced long lists of women of courage and accomplishment and proclaimed that women would be the intellectual equals of men if they were given equal access to education.
After a series of satiric pieces mocking women was published, the first feminist pamphleteer in England, writing as Jane Anger, responded with Jane Anger, Her Protection for Women This volley of opinion continued for more than a century, until another English author, Mary Astell, issued a more reasoned rejoinder in A Serious Proposal to the Ladies The two-volume work suggested that women inclined neither toward marriage nor a religious vocation should set up secular convents where they might live, study, and teach.
Influence of the Enlightenment The feminist voices of the Renaissance never coalesced into a coherent philosophy or movement. This happened only with the Enlightenmentwhen women began to demand that the new reformist rhetoric about libertyequality, and natural rights be applied to both sexes. Initially, Enlightenment philosophers focused on the inequities of social class and caste to the exclusion of gender.
Swiss-born French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseaufor example, portrayed women as silly and frivolous creatures, born to be subordinate to men. In addition, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizenwhich defined French citizenship after the revolution ofpointedly failed to address the legal status of women.
Female intellectuals of the Enlightenment were quick to point out this lack of inclusivity and the limited scope of reformist rhetoric.
Challenging the notion that women exist only to please men, she proposed that women and men be given equal opportunities in education, work, and politics. Women, she wrote, are as naturally rational as men. If they are silly, it is only because society trains them to be irrelevant. The Age of Enlightenment turned into an era of political ferment marked by revolutions in France, Germany, and Italy and the rise of abolitionism.
In the United States, feminist activism took root when female abolitionists sought to apply the concepts of freedom and equality to their own social and political situations.
Their work brought them in contact with female abolitionists in England who were reaching the same conclusions. By the midth century, issues surrounding feminism had added to the tumult of social changewith ideas being exchanged across Europe and North America. Library of Congress, Washington, D.
Instead, she promoted abolitionism and a land-distribution program for other former slaves. Nobody ever helps me into carriages, or over mud-puddles, or gives me any best place! Concern in the United States turned to the pending Civil War, while in Europe the reformism of the s gave way to the repression of the late s.
When the feminist movement rebounded, it became focused on a single issue, woman suffragea goal that would dominate international feminism for almost 70 years. Civil War, American feminists assumed that woman suffrage would be included in the Fifteenth Amendment to the U.
Constitution, which prohibited disfranchisement on the basis of race. Yet leading abolitionists refused to support such inclusion, which prompted Stanton and Susan B.
Anthonya temperance activist, to form the National Woman Suffrage Association in At first they based their demand for the vote on the Enlightenment principle of natural lawregularly invoking the concept of inalienable rights granted to all Americans by the Declaration of Independence.
Byhowever, the American passion for such principles as equality had been dampened by a flood of Eastern European immigrants and the growth of urban slums. Suffragist leaders, reflecting that shift in attitude, began appealing for the vote not on the principle of justice or on the common humanity of men and women but on racist and nativist grounds.
As early asCarrie Chapman Catt declared that the votes of literate, American-born, middle-class women would balance the votes of foreigners: Anthony, however, ceded no ground.
It was not until a different kind of radical, Alice Paulreignited the woman suffrage movement in the United States by copying English activists. Like the Americans, British suffragists, led by the National Union of Woman Suffrage Societies, had initially approached their struggle politely, with ladylike lobbying.
But in a dissident faction led by Emmeline Pankhurst began a series of boycottsbombings, and pickets. In American feminism claimed its first major triumph with the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution.
The postsuffrage era Once the crucial goal of suffrage had been achieved, the feminist movement virtually collapsed in both Europe and the United States. Lacking an ideology beyond the achievement of the vote, feminism fractured into a dozen splinter groups: Each of these groups offered some civic contribution, but none was specifically feminist in nature.
Infighting began because many feminists were not looking for strict equality; they were fighting for laws that would directly benefit women.
Paul, however, argued that protective legislation—such as laws mandating maximum eight-hour shifts for female factory workers—actually closed the door of opportunity on women by imposing costly rules on employers, who would then be inclined to hire fewer women.
Could women be freed from discrimination without damaging the welfare and protective apparatus so many needed?A primary causes of gender discrimination in the workplace is that women are under-represented in many different industries, especially in male-dominated industries such as the auto industry.
In Congress passed Title IX of the Higher prohibited discrimination on the basis of sex in any educational program receiving federal funds and thereby forced all-male schools to open their doors to women and athletic programs to sponsor and The women's movement was so influential that in TIME awarded its "Man of the Year.
The Effects of the Patsy T. Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act Title IX The Patsy T. Mink Equal Opportunity in the statistics of working women 7 Conclusion 9 Recommendations 10 Bibliography 11 Introduction: History of Women in the work field Over the past decade an extreme increase of the number of Women Sport's.
Get this from a library! Sex discrimination and the law: history, practice, and theory. [Barbara Allen Babcock;] -- Synopsis: Sex Discrimination and the Law: History, Practice, and Theory, Second Edition, provides coverage o feminist litigation/legislation and feminist legal theory so students can fully understand.
The same UN document offers a concise history: "[T]he notion of social justice is relatively new. It arose principally as a moral reaction to the poverty caused by social injustice in that region.
C Quigley The Evolution Of Civilizations: An Introduction to Historical . Gender Equity Through Sports Research Question: To what extent did Sports alleviate or worsen Gender Inequality?
Overview: Introduction - History of Women's Participation in Sports - Positive & Negative Aspects - Title IX Title IX - In sport, Gender Inequality includes, male sports being televised and promoted more than female sport.