Theory of the Firm:
Common property rights and environmental degradation 1. Introduction The past two decades have been marked by the emergency of environmental issues as field of immediate concern. We can distinguish two threats to environment including: Scholars such as Aristotlehave long realized that the nature, extend and allocation of property rights can considerably influence the rate of depletion and degradation of natural resources.
The nature of property ownership, can have a negative effect on the conservation of resources and the economic efficiency with which resources are used, protected and developed Tisdell.
This means that some property regimes need to be compulsory to conserve resources. Despite Aristotle's warning, various environmental assets have never been owned by individuals, due to political, economical, technological, and cultural motives.
This paper examines the relationship between common property rights and environmental degradation such as deforestation and land degradation. The paper advocates that the environmental degradation in many countries is directly attributed to the deficiency in the allocation of access to or lack of exclusion of non right holders from common property resources Colin Hunt The paper will focus firstly on Types of Property Rights Regimes, secondly Property rights and environmental degradation and finally Conclusions and recommendations.
Definition of key concepts Property right is a form of power and authority over a resource for decision making Denman Property rights are sets of rights for the management of assets including environmental assets known as natural resources Dasgupta There are two key factors that contribute to the unsustainability natural capital use.
The first is the lack of assigned rights over the use of resources.
However according to Roman Law, it was a breach of law for any individual to own an environmental good such as air, water and sea because they are common to the mankind for that reason the lack of property over these goods resulted in abuse and sometimes destruction of them.
To resolve the problem of degradation of the environment we need property rights in environmental resources, and control access to environmental resources through government regulations Hardin It is important to note that property does not mean relationship between people and possessions but a relationship between people with regard to assets.
There is also a distinction between property ownership and property rights. For example a tenant has the right to exploit property owned by others and getting rent. Whereas property land in land or water for example are limited on use of property by laws and regulations.
Literature review According to Aristotle "that which is common to the greatest number has the least care bestowed on it" his argument was that for efficient use and better conservation of the natural assets, individuals or private entities should be assigned the rights over a natural asset.
In addition three other schools of thought emerged from the literature of property rights. According to DemsetzCheungJohnsonSmiththe problem of over exploitation of resource and its degradation is a result of common property regimes and it can merely be solved by assigning enforceable property rights to individuals or private entities.
On the other hand, Hardins argued that the problem of over exploitation and degradation of resources can be reduced by allocating full authority to an external agency to control and manage the resource or the state should enforce its power.
Furthermore, JodhaWadeBerkes and Chopra advocate that the decentralization of collective management of common property rights would be more appropriate strategy to avoid the tragedy of the commons. In contrast some anthropologists and sociologists argued that common property does not imply open access, because in common property regime outsiders can be excluded from using the resource thus its does not entail environmental degradation.
However, pure private property rights combined with significant externalities may degrade the quality of the environment Ostrom Types of Property Rights Regimes his section provides any overview of the various types of property rights and its characteristics.
According to literature, there are various forms of property rights, but in this paper, am going to mention four general property rights regimes including: Private property efers to property owned by individual holding the rights to use dispose and exclude others from the resource.
Common property denotes a collective ownership of a resource, in which the owners can only exclude outsiders.
Towards a More Evolutionary Theory of Property Rights. was branded the evolutionary theory of property rights. So much so that, in , Northwestern University hosted a where 0>K>N-1, provides a useful perspective to make sense of the critiques to the Demsetz theory of the evolution of property rights listed earlier. In the Demsetz. We provide a brief statement of the emergence and change of property rights over time under a more rigorously evolutionary perspective. Having argued that property rights follow a process of variation, selection, and replication, we present some. facto property rights.9 However, contrary to Demsetz and Engerman and Sokoloff, our first contribution is to show that conflict and rent dissipation arises when the actor (individual, group, or government).
For example, common property or partnership and corporate property are usually referred to as private as long as it is not owned by the state Denman The major terminological dilemma in academic literature is the conflict of common property and non-property or open access HardinNorth and Thomas However, the distinction according to economic literature is that common property constitute the private property for the group of partners and all those who are not co owners are excluded from using the resource as well as in the decision making process over the resource whereas where no property or open access is a property regime whereby everyone can access and use the resource since there is no exclusion HardinNorth and Thomas The most fundamental are: The rights mentioned above can be divided and combined in many ways for different purposes.According to (Demsetz , Cheung , Johnson , Smith ), the problem of over exploitation of resource and its degradation is a result of common property regimes and it can merely be solved by assigning enforceable property rights to individuals or private entities.
Third, in the evolution of property rights the distinction between public and private is not crucial in differentiating the key arrangements; instead, a more finely differentiated set of gradations from “public” to “private” prove central to the story of the Chinese monstermanfilm.com: Paperback.
rights is Harold Demsetz’s path-breaking article, “Toward a Theory of Prop- erty Rights.” 1 The article is still widely cited and reproduced, especially in ﬁrst-year property courses in law schools. 6 Law, Property Rights, and Air Pollution* Law as a Normative Discipline Law is a set of commands; the principles of tort or criminal law, which we shall be dealing with, are negative commands or.
5 Rights." Extending Demsetz's thesis on the evolution of institutions, government provision of land titles is here treated as a market response to increasing rural demand. INTRODUCTION: THE DEMSETZ THESIS AND THE EVOLUTION OF PROPERTY RIGHTS The Demsetz thesis can be seen as an anticipation of the idea that the 8 Saul Levmore, Two Stories about the Evolution of Property Rights, in this issue, at S 9 Henry E.