The epidemic of smoking essay

In the process of making this weapon, there will be no much difficulty involved and the process is not complex and not expensive.

The epidemic of smoking essay

Map of a later cholera outbreak in London, in Legend for the map above Snow was a skeptic of the then-dominant miasma theory that stated that diseases such as cholera and bubonic plague were caused by pollution or a noxious form of "bad air". The germ theory of disease had not yet been developed, so Snow did not understand the mechanism by which the disease was transmitted.

His observation of the evidence led him to discount the theory of foul air. He first publicised his theory in an essay, On the Mode of Communication of Cholera, [15] followed by a more detailed treatise in incorporating the results of his investigation of the role of the water supply in the Soho epidemic of Although Snow's chemical and microscope examination of a water sample from the Broad Street pump did not conclusively prove its danger, his studies of the pattern of the disease were convincing enough to persuade the local council to disable the well pump by removing its handle force rod.

This action has been commonly credited as ending the outbreak, but Snow observed that the epidemic may have already been in rapid decline: There is no doubt that the mortality was much diminished, as I said before, by the flight of the population, which commenced soon after the outbreak; but the attacks had so far diminished before the use of the water was stopped, that it is impossible to decide whether the well still contained the cholera poison in an active state, or whether, from some cause, the water had become free from it.

Snow later used a dot map to illustrate the cluster of cholera cases around the pump. He also used statistics to illustrate the connection between the quality of the water source and cholera cases.

He showed that the Southwark and Vauxhall Waterworks Company was taking water from sewage-polluted sections of the Thames and delivering the water to homes, leading to an increased incidence of cholera.

Snow's study was a major event in the history of public health and geography. It is regarded as the founding event of the science of epidemiology.

On proceeding to the spot, I found that nearly all the deaths had taken place within a short distance of the [Broad Street] pump. There were only ten deaths in houses situated decidedly nearer to another street-pump. In five of these cases the families of the deceased persons informed me that they always sent to the pump in Broad Street, as they preferred the water to that of the pumps which were nearer.

In three other cases, the deceased were children who went to school near the pump in Broad Street With regard to the deaths occurring in the locality belonging to the pump, there were 61 instances in which I was informed that the deceased persons used to drink the pump water from Broad Street, either constantly or occasionally The result of the inquiry, then, is, that there has been no particular outbreak or prevalence of cholera in this part of London except among the persons who were in the habit of drinking the water of the above-mentioned pump well.

I had an interview with the Board of Guardians of St James's parish, on the evening of the 7th inst [7 September], and represented the above circumstances to them. In consequence of what I said, the handle of the pump was removed on the following day. The cloth nappy of a baby, who had contracted cholera from another source, had been washed into this cesspit.

Its opening was originally under a nearby house, which had been rebuilt farther away after a fire. The city had widened the street and the cesspit was lost. It was common at the time to have a cesspit under most homes. Most families tried to have their raw sewage collected and dumped in the Thames to prevent their cesspit from filling faster than the sewage could decompose into the soil.

They had responded only to the urgent threat posed to the population, and afterward they rejected Snow's theory. To accept his proposal would have meant indirectly accepting the fecal-oral route of disease transmission, which was too unpleasant for most of the public to contemplate. In fact, some of the statistical data that Farr collected helped promote John Snow's views.

In the mids his health deteriorated, and he returned to meat-eating and drinking wine. He continued drinking pure water via boiling throughout his adult life. He was 45 years old at the time. He was buried in Brompton Cemetery. It shows a water pump with its handle removed.

The spot where the pump stood is covered with red granite. A public house nearby was named "The John Snow" in his honour.

An annual Pumphandle Lecture is delivered each September by a leading authority in contemporary public health. His grave in Brompton CemeteryLondon, is marked by a funerary monument. The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland awards The John Snow Award, a bursary for undergraduate medical students undertaking research in the field of anaesthesia.

In a public health research and consulting firm, John Snow, Incwas founded. In The Lancet printed a correction of its brief obituary of Snow, originally published in Prescription opioid abuse is an epidemic in the United States.

The epidemic of smoking essay

In , there were reportedly as many as million opioid abusers in this country, and the number of new abusers had increased by. You will have to determine which causes or effects you're going to write about. For instance, if there are too many causes for you to deal with in the scope of your essay, you'll have to decide what are the main causes, the ones you have to treat, and then suggest to your reader that there are other, relatively minor, causes outside the scope of your essay.

All through and into I kept a list of the books I hoped to write about for Bubba’s Book Club.

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(The key word was “hoped.”) Unlike most book reviewers, I have the luxury of choosing to read only books that I expect to enjoy — whether on the strength of a good review, a friend’s recommendation, or a taste for the author’s previous work.

How to Write a Great Essay Quickly. If you're anything like me, you get stressed when you feel rushed. Sometimes when I feel that I don't have enough time to get something done, I get so frantic. Analysis of Mother Teresa’s Speech Mother Teresa.

Known as a pioneer, a peacemaker, and a legend. Mother Teresa or also known as “Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu” was a . By Lt Daniel Furseth. Today, I stopped caring about my fellow man.

I stopped caring about my community, my neighbors, and those I serve. I stopped caring today because a once noble profession has become despised, hated, distrusted, and mostly unwanted.

The epidemic of smoking essay
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