Read on to learn the effects of alcohol on your body. A glass a day may do little damage to your overall health. But if the habit grows or if you find yourself having a hard time stopping after just one glass, the cumulative effects can add up.
Risk Factors and Consequences Despite a minimum legal drinking age of 21, many young people in the United States consume alcohol. The progression of drinking from use to abuse to dependence is associated with biological and psychosocial factors.
This Alcohol Alert examines some of these factors that put youth at risk for drinking and for alcohol-related problems and considers some of the consequences of their drinking.
Prevalence of Youth Drinking Thirteen- to fifteen-year-olds are at high risk to begin drinking 3. According to results of an annual survey of students in 8th, 10th, and 12th grades, 26 percent of 8th graders, 40 percent of 10th graders, and 51 percent of 12th graders reported drinking alcohol within the past month 4.
Binge drinking at least once during the 2 weeks before the survey was reported by 16 percent of 8th graders, 25 percent of 10th graders, and 30 percent of 12th graders. Males report higher rates of daily drinking and binge drinking than females, but these differences are diminishing 3.
White students report the highest levels of drinking, blacks report the lowest, and Hispanics fall between the two 3. A survey focusing on the alcohol-related problems experienced by 4, high school seniors and dropouts found that within the preceding year, approximately 80 percent reported either getting "drunk," binge drinking, or drinking and driving.
More than half said that drinking had caused them to feel sick, miss school or work, get arrested, or have a car crash 5. Some adolescents who drink later abuse alcohol and may develop alcoholism.
Although these conditions are defined for adults in the DSM, research suggests that separate diagnostic criteria may be needed for youth 6. Drinking and Adolescent Development While drinking may be a singular problem behavior for some, research suggests that for others it may be an expression of general adolescent turmoil that includes other problem behaviors and that these behaviors are linked to unconventionality, impulsiveness, and sensation seeking Binge drinking, often beginning around age 13, tends to increase during adolescence, peak in young adulthood agesthen gradually decrease.
In a national survey, binge drinking was reported by 28 percent of high school seniors, 41 percent of to year-olds, but only 25 percent of to year-olds 3, Individuals who increase their binge drinking from age 18 to 24 and those who consistently binge drink at least once a week during this period may have problems attaining the goals typical of the transition from adolescence to young adulthood e.
Children of alcoholics are significantly more likely than children of nonalcoholics to initiate drinking during adolescence 17 and to develop alcoholism 18but the relative influences of environment and genetics have not been determined and vary among people.
Brain waves elicited in response to specific stimuli e. P, a wave that occurs about milliseconds after a stimulus, is most frequently used in this research.
A low P amplitude has been demonstrated in individuals with increased risk for alcoholism, especially sons of alcoholic fathers 19, P measures among 36 preadolescent boys were able to predict alcohol and other drug AOD use 4 years later, at an average age of 16 Children classified as "undercontrolled" i.
Aggressiveness in children as young as ages has been found to predict AOD use in adolescence 23, Childhood antisocial behavior is associated with alcohol-related problems in adolescence and alcohol abuse or dependence in adulthood 28, Among to year-olds, regular alcohol use has been significantly associated with conduct disorder; in one study, adolescents who reported higher levels of drinking were more likely to have conduct disorder 30, Six-year-old to seventeen-year-old boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD who were also found to have weak social relationships had significantly higher rates of alcohol abuse and dependence 4 years later, compared with ADHD boys without social deficiencies and boys without ADHD Whether anxiety and depression lead to or are consequences of alcohol abuse is unresolved.
In a study of college freshmen, a DSM-III 33 diagnosis of alcohol abuse or dependence was twice as likely among those with anxiety disorder as those without this disorder In another study, college students diagnosed with alcohol abuse were almost four times as likely as students without alcohol abuse to have a major depressive disorder In most of these cases, depression preceded alcohol abuse.
In 43 percent of these cases, the onset of AOD dependence preceded the depression; in 35 percent, the depression occurred first; and in 22 percent, the disorders occurred simultaneously Alcohol use among adolescents has been associated with considering, planning, attempting, and completing suicide In one study, 37 percent of eighth-grade females who drank heavily reported attempting suicide, compared with 11 percent who did not drink Research does not indicate whether drinking causes suicidal behavior, only that the two behaviors are correlated.
Early initiation of drinking has been identified as an important risk factor for later alcohol-related problems Children who were warned about alcohol by their parents and children who reported being closer to their parents were less likely to start drinking 42,44, Lack of parental support, monitoring, and communication have been significantly related to frequency of drinking 46heavy drinking, and drunkenness among adolescents Harsh, inconsistent discipline and hostility or rejection toward children have also been found to significantly predict adolescent drinking and alcohol-related problems Peer drinking and peer acceptance of drinking have been associated with adolescent drinking 48, While both peer influences and parental influences are important, their relative impact on adolescent drinking is unclear.
Positive alcohol-related expectancies have been identified as risk factors for adolescent drinking. Positive expectancies about alcohol have been found to increase with age 50 and to predict the onset of drinking and problem drinking among adolescents Child abuse and other traumas have been proposed as risk factors for subsequent alcohol problems.Social and economic costs cover the negative economic impacts of alcohol consumption on the material welfare of the society as a monstermanfilm.com comprise both direct costs - the value of goods and services delivered to address the harmful effects of alcohol, and indirect costs - the value of personal productive services that are not delivered as a .
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|Alcohol Tolerance and Dependence Consistent alcohol use may also lead to tolerance.|
Get the knowledge you need in order to pass your classes and more. Only at monstermanfilm.com". The Impact of Alcohol Abuse on American Society Number of traffic fatalities annually related to drugs and/or alcohol Alcohol related crashes kills someone in the U.S.
every 22 minutes. Alcohol consumption can have adverse social and economic effects on the individual drinker, the drinker’s immediate environment and society as a whole. Indeed, individuals other than the drinker can be affected, for example, by traffic accidents or violence.
The Social Effects of Alcoholism. Learn how alcohol impacts the individual, family and society. Read about its role in domestic violence, college campus assaults, and its cost to the nation and workplaces. Alcohol misuse can harm people other than the drinker, and can have negative consequences for society as a whole.
It is commonly believed to play a role in decreased worker productivity, increased unintentional injuries, aggression and violence against others, and child and spouse abuse.