I was sitting at home, revising my manuscript introduction and feeling jealous of all of my historian friends at the conference, when I got an email telling me my last and best hope for a tenure-track job this year had evaporated. I closed my laptop and walked out of my office. The perfect reading lamp, the drawer of fountain pen ink, the dozens of pieces of scratch paper taped the walls, full of ideas to pursue. The hundreds of books surrounding me, collected over nearly a dozen years, seemed like nothing more than kindling in that moment.
Basil Blackwell,pp. That movement, as I conceive it, is committed to a number of goals, including: There are, I know, people who profess to believe in animal rights but do not avow these goals. Factory farming, they say, is wrong - it violates animals' rights - but traditional animal agriculture is all right.
Toxicity tests of cosmetics on animals violates their rights, but important medical research — cancer research, for example — does not.
The clubbing of baby seals is abhorrent, but not the harvesting of adult seals. I used to think I understood this reasoning. You don't change unjust institutions by tidying them up. What's wrong — fundamentally wrong — with the way animals are treated isn't the details that vary from case to case.
It's the whole system. The forlornness of the veal calf is pathetic, heart wrenching; the pulsing pain of the chimp with electrodes planted deep in her brain is repulsive; the slow, tortuous death of the racoon caught in the leg-hold trap is agonizing.
But what is wrong isn't the pain, isn't the suffering, isn't the deprivation. These compound what's wrong. Sometimes - often - they make it much, much worse. But they are not the fundamental wrong.
The fundamental wrong is the system that allows us to view animals as our resources, here for us — to be eaten, or surgically manipulated, or exploited for sport or money.
Once we accept this view of animals - as our resources - the rest is as predictable as it is regrettable. Why worry about their loneliness, their pain, their death?
Since animals exist for us, to benefit us in one way or another, what harms them really doesn't matter — or matters only if it starts to bother us, makes us feel a trifle uneasy when we eat our veal escalope, for example. So, yes, let us get veal calves out of solitary confinement, give them more space, a little straw, a few companions.
But let us keep our veal escalope. But a little straw, more space and a few companions won't eliminate - won't even touch - the basic wrong that attaches to our viewing and treating these animals as our resources.
A veal calf killed to be eaten after living in close confinement is viewed and treated in this way: To right the wrong of our treatment of farm animals requires more than making rearing methods 'more humane'; it requires the total dissolution of commercial animal agriculture.
How we do this, whether we do it or, as in the case of animals in science, whether and how we abolish their use - these are to a large extent political questions. People must change their beliefs before they change their habits.
Enough people, especially those elected to public office, must believe in change - must want it - before we will have laws that protect the rights of animals. This process of change is very complicated, very demanding, very exhausting, calling for the efforts of many hands in education, publicity, political organization and activity, down to the licking of envelopes and stamps.
As a trained and practising philosopher, the sort of contribution I can make is limited but, I like to think, important.Inside JESUS CHRIST SUPERSTAR background and analysis by Scott Miller We made him a type of Everyman. Judas did not think of himself as a traitor. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (UK: / ˈ r uː s oʊ /, US: / r uː ˈ s oʊ /; French: [ʒɑ̃ʒak ʁuso]; 28 June – 2 July ) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and monstermanfilm.com in Geneva, his political philosophy influenced the progress of the Enlightenment throughout Europe, as well as aspects of the French Revolution and the development of modern political and educational thought.
An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding appeared for the first time under this title in the edition of Essays and Treatises on Several Subjects.
Earlier it had been published several times, beginning in , under the title.
Lucius Annaeus Seneca On the Shortness of Life translated by John W. Basore, Loeb Classical Library London: William Heinemann, Benedict De Spinoza (—) Benedict de Spinoza was among the most important of the post-Cartesian philosophers who flourished in the second half of the 17th monstermanfilm.com made significant contributions in virtually every area of philosophy, and his writings reveal the influence of such divergent sources as Stoicism, Jewish Rationalism, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Descartes, and a variety of.
George Washington (22 February – 14 December ) was the successful Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War from to , and later became the first President of the United States of America, an office to which he was elected, unanimously, twice and remained in from to He is generally regarded as the "Father of his country".